1 What is acid rain?
Acid rain is also known in English as Acid Rain, which refers to industrial pollutants present in rainwater and water with less than 5.6. Acid particles will be mixed in the rain water causing the pH to drop. Acid rain also dissolves some dangerous metals in the air, making rainwater more toxic.
Acid rain is caused by emissions of SO2 and NO2 , produced by humans during the development of industry, chemicals,… Humans exploit a lot of coal, oil and natural fuels. Other factors are not reasonable, so it is easy for acid rain to appear.
Areas most affected by acid rain worldwide are Eastern European countries from Poland northward into Scandinavia . This is followed by countries to the east of the United States and southeastern Canada . In addition, Southeast Asian countries are also affected, typically the southeast coast of China and Taiwan .
2 Causes of acid rain
The causes of acid rain are many, but in general, they are mainly due to human and natural changes . Natural changes such as volcanic eruptions, fires, … In the atmosphere, the amount of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen increases significantly, forming acid rain.
In the course of life, people develop economically and industrially use a lot of coal and oil for fuel. From there, it produces toxic gases such as SO2 , NO2 , H2SO4 , HNO3 , … because in coal, petroleum often contains a large amount of sulfur and the air contains a lot of nitrogen.
In addition, there are a number of other factors such as emissions from industrial plants, thermal power plants, metallurgy, oil refining, … produced by humans, which are also the causes of acid rain.
3 The process of forming acid rain
As noted above, sulfur is present in large quantities in coal and petroleum, and nitrogen is abundant in the air. During the combustion process, toxic gases such as SO2 and NO2 are produced. At that time, the gases will be dissolved in the air to form H2SO4, HNO3.
When it rains, the acid particles are mixed into the rain water, making the rain water's pH drop to only 5.6. Rainwater can also dissolve with some other harmful oxides present in the air, making rainwater even more toxic, adversely affecting the lives of people, animals and plants.
4 Harmful effects of acid rain
Acid rain has great effects on the living environment of humans, animals and plants, economic development and society.
Adverse effects on human health
The first harm we need to pay attention to is that acid rain adversely affects human health. If you use rainwater for daily activities such as washing your face, bathing, washing, etc., it contains acidic substances that can easily cause skin diseases such as fungus, rashes, severe dermatitis .
In particular, when you use acid rain to cook food, it is very easy to affect the intestines and digestive system . In acid rain, there are many substances harmful to human health, they are easily absorbed into food or drinking water.
Accordingly, these contaminated foods can damage the nerves in children. If it gets worse, it can seriously affect the brain and cause death . Scientific experts have studied and proven that the metal substances in acid rain will cause Alzheimer 's disease.
Besides, acid rain also affects the resistance and respiratory tract of people, because rain water does not contain essential minerals for the body.
Effects on the atmosphere
Acid rain not only affects human health but also affects the atmosphere, causing long-term negative consequences for the earth. When acid rain lasts for a long time, visibility will be limited due to the formation of sulfate and nitrate particles in the atmosphere.
The atmosphere will form acid fogs, which affect the ability of the sun to spread light. Especially in the Arctic region, this phenomenon has influenced the development of lichens and populations of reindeer and snow deer.
Adverse effects on aquatic organisms
Acid rain reduces the ability to live and develop aquatic organisms, because acid rain has a low pH, thereby reducing the pH in the water. If acid rain is abundant in ponds and lakes, organisms will be weakened and gradually die.
Acid rain also affects sea water and marine species. This phenomenon interferes with fish species absorption of nutrients, salt and oxygen. More specifically, the reduced pH in seawater causes a salt imbalance in the tissues.
At the same time, acid rain impairs the ability of marine organisms to maintain calcium levels. Affects the reproductive process, causing bone deformities and the spine is also weakened.
Great effect on plants
Acid rain is not only harmful to animals but also greatly affects plants, especially crops. When acid rain occurs, water will seep into the soil and dissolve toxic substances in the soil. Plant roots will absorb and affect crop yield.
At the same time, rainwater also washes away nutrients in the soil, making plants unable to absorb, then weakens and dies. Acid rain also creates cold air and removes the waxy protective coating of leaves, making leaves damaged and plants no longer able to grow well, leading to plant death.
Erosion of the surface of architectural works
The biggest physical damage from acid rain to humans is the erosion of the surface of structures. For example, acid rain has dissolved rocks such as sandstone, lime, and marble.
In addition, this phenomenon also corrodes porcelain or textile articles, paints and metals. Utensils made from leather and rubber will deteriorate and corrode from direct contact with acid rain.
5 Benefits of Acid Rain
The atmosphere contains up to . of methane 22%, which affects the greenhouse effect and is the cause of global warming. The bacteria living in the swamps consume the substances in the peat that are the main cause of methane production and release it into the atmosphere.
In addition to the harmful effects of acid rain on humans, animals and plants, acid rain also has the benefit of helping to prevent global warming because the sulfur content in acid rain will help affect the production of methane gas. nature of bacteria in the swamp.
In the marshes, there are not only methane-producing bacteria, but also bacteria that eat sulphide, which depletes their food source, making the bacteria less likely to produce greenhouse gases. Many experiments have shown that the deposited sulfide can reduce methane generation by up to 30%.
6 Remedies for Acid Rain
There are many solutions to overcome acid rain, but the most important and important measure is human consciousness.
- Rainwater should not be used for domestic purposes.
- Factories need to build very high chimneys to avoid pollution to the local environment. At the same time, the thermal power plant needs to install a sulphide reduction device.
- Emission control vehicles reduce the emissions of nitrogen oxides from motor vehicles.
- Thoroughly remove sulfur and nitrogen from petroleum and coal before use.
- Use eco-friendly energy sources, with clean fuels like hydrogen .
- Improve the engines in vehicles according to EURO standards to completely burn the waste fuel into the environment.
- The State always needs to have an education program to propagate people's awareness of environmental protection.
- People need to strictly follow regulations on wastewater treatment.
*Reference source: Synthesis
Hope the above article will help you understand more about what is acid rain? Harm of acid rain on life and appropriate prevention. Any questions please leave a comment below!