What is PM2.5 fine dust? Harm and ways to prevent fine dust PM2.5

We often hear information about PM2.5 fine dust that pollutes the air and causes great harm to health. So what is PM2.5 dust? What are the harms and ways to prevent PM2.5 fine dust? Let's find out with Dien May XANH in this article!


1 What is PM2.5 fine dust?

Dust is a mixture of solid or liquid compounds floating in the air, the compounds in dust are also known collectively as Particulate Matter – PM symbol. In which, dust particles with microscopic size ( micron ) are best known such as:

  • PM10: Fine dust with a diameter of 2.5 to 10 microns the size of a millionth of a meter.
  • PM2.5: Fine dust less than 2.5 microns in diameter.
  • PM1.0: Ultra-fine dust with a size of 1 micron.
  • PM0.1 nano dust: Ultra-fine dust less than 0.1 micron in size.

PM2.5 fine dust is tiny dust particles present in the air with a size of 2.5 microns or less (it's about 30 times smaller than a human hair).

Bụi mịn PM2,5 là gì?

The symbolic size of some types of dust compared to a human hair and a grain of sand.

2 Causes of PM 2.5 . dust

PM2.5 fine dust appearing in the air originates from natural causes and man-made causes.

Natural causes

  • Wildfires : Large wildfires worldwide are largely caused by abrupt climate change. Sudden climate change releases a large amount of dust into the environment, leading to serious air pollution.
  • Natural dust : Deserts, sandy soils, volcanic eruptions are also one of the major causes contributing to the creation of a large amount of fine dust dispersed in the air, polluting the air.
  • Time of season change : Around October – November of the year, fog often appears. These thick layers of fog contribute to the accumulation of dust inside the city that cannot escape, thereby making the city covered with a thick layer of dust (fine dust, superfine dust, …).

Cháy rừng phát tán ra môi trường một lượng lớn bụi

Forest fires release a large amount of dust into the environment

Artificial causes

  • Transportation: Personal vehicles also produce a certain amount of smoke, dust and dust carried during travel, eroding the road surface to the air, thereby increasing the amount of large fine dust causing pollution. air pollution.
  • Daily life : The use of coal, wood and oil stoves for cooking also produces a certain amount of smoke, which increases fine dust in the air.
  • Industrial production: Factories, factories, and industrial parks often emit a large amount of smoke into the environment and the air, thereby increasing the amount of fine dust in the air.
  • Garbage: Domestic and industrial waste produce bacteria and fine dust, thereby affecting the clean air you breathe every day.
  • Construction: The process of building apartments, buildings, bridges and roads is also a cause of fine dust in the environment, seriously affecting the air.
  • Agriculture: Transporting and burning rice straw produces toxic fumes, affecting the flow of clean air in the environment.

Rác thải sinh hoạt chồng chất sinh ra các hạt bụi mịn trong không khí

The piled-up of daily-life waste produces fine dust particles in the air

Khói thải từ các phương tiện di chuyển góp phần sinh ra 1 lượng lớn bụi trong không khí

Exhaust fumes from moving vehicles produce a large amount of dust in the air

3 Harmful effects of dust PM2.5

PM2.5 fine dust brings harmful bacteria to the body, thereby causing skin allergies, making you feel itchy and uncomfortable. If exposed to a lot of fine dust, it can also cause rhinitis, eye pain, and ear, nose and throat diseases.

Bụi mịn PM2.5 mang đến những con vi khuẩn có hại cho cơ thể bạn

Ear, nose and throat diseases are common when exposed to a lot of PM2.5 dust

PM 2.5 dust can absorb toxins and carry bacteria and viruses into the environment. Therefore, when they enter your body, they will release toxins underground into your body, thereby weakening the immune system. Therefore, people living in big cities, with high levels of pollution are often more susceptible to minor diseases than people living in places with fresh air.

Hệ miễn dịch bị suy giảm khi hấp thụ chất độc hại từ bụi PM2.5

Immune system is weakened when absorbing toxic substances from PM2.5 . dust

PM2.5 dust enters your body through breathing. They then follow the airways, attach and accumulate on the surface of the lungs. When this amount of dust accumulates over time, it can cause great damage to your lungs.

Bụi PM2.5 xâm nhập vào cơ thể làm ảnh hưởng lớn đến phổi

PM2.5 dust enters the body, greatly affecting the lungs

Besides, fine dust PM2.5 destroys and accelerates the process of Apoptosis – one of the most important pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, when inhaling a large amount of PM2.5 fine dust, maybe increases the risk of death in people with heart disease.

Bụi PM2.5 đẩy nhanh quá trình Apoptosis làm tăng nguy cơ tử vong ở bệnh tim mạch

PM2.5 dust accelerates Apoptosis, increases the risk of death from cardiovascular disease

Studies on human brain have shown us that when we are exposed to PM2.5 fine dust, they can move slowly into the brain, thereby penetrating and increasing the incidence of disease. our brain degeneration.

Bụi mịn PM2.5 thẩm thấu vào não gây thoái hóa não

PM2.5 fine dust penetrates the brain causing brain degeneration

In particular, PM2.5 fine dust containing metal is researched by scientists as a cause of cancer and more terrible than genetic modification in humans.

Biến đổi gen ở người do hít phải bụi PM2.5 có chứa kim loại

Genetic modification in humans caused by inhalation of metal-containing PM2.5 dust

4 Ways to prevent fine dust PM2.5

Thang đo ô nhiễm không khí theo tiêu chuẩn AQI

Air pollution scale according to AQI . standards

Use a specialized mask when going out

is a useful item when going out in the current heavily polluted time. However, ordinary masks do not filter out PM2.5 ultra-fine dust particles.

To filter these types of ultrafine dust we need wear a specialized mask or have a little tip wear two medical masks interlocking, or wear a mask and line a thin tissue inside (this is only temporary because it causes confusion and discomfort for the wearer).

Khẩu trang lọc bụi cần được sử dụng đúng cách

For the best dust filtration, you should choose an N95, N99 or a dedicated air filter mask. N95 masks filter out 95% of dust and bacteria, regular medical masks filter out 30%-40% of dust, wearing two layers of medical masks will prevent dust to 90%. Specialized air filter masks are distinguished by their ability to resist fine dust, bacteria and viruses, helping to clean the air to ensure the health of users.

Khẩu trang N95 lọc được 95% bụi và vi khuẩn

N95 standard mask

Using an indoor air purifier

Currently on the market there are many types that have the ability to filter bacteria, mold, allergens, … especially filter superfine dust PM2.5 and PM10.

Some smart air purifiers can measure the air quality after filtering, giving users more peace of mind during use.

Máy lọc không khí lọc được bụi siêu mịn

Healthy living habits

  • To limit the harmful effects of air pollution, we should create a habit of cleaning our nose and throat regularly. Improve the body's resistance by Eat healthy, exercise, avoid smoky places as much as possible.
  • For children with weak resistance, it is necessary to remind them to wear a mask every time they go out, give them enough nutrients, drink a lot of water, and avoid exposure to dusty, smokey environments.
  • On polluted air days, limit opening windows or going outside.

Uống nhiều nước là một thói quen tốt

Drinking lots of water is a good habit

PM2.5 ultra-fine dust causes incalculable harm, each of us should protect ourselves against air pollution and contribute to protecting the environment by doing small things such as not littering, limiting motor vehicle use. when you need to travel close distances, use public transport,…